By Stijn Mitzer
In November 2021 it was announced that Kazakhstan had signed a contract with Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) for the delivery of three TAI Anka unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs).  Their purchase comes some six years after the Kazakh Air Force first acquired an armed drone capability in the form of four Wing Loong Is from China.  Rather than acquiring more Chinese-made UCAVs, in 2021 Kazakhstan turned to Turkey to press on its armed drone programme. Another supplier of UAVs to Kazakhstan is Israel, which however doesn't export UCAVs abroad.